Scientific Studies Backed TetraSOD® Properties

Index of contents:

Completed Scientific Research about TetraSOD®

One of our primary goals has always been to support the benefits of TetraSOD® with world-class scientific research. For this reason, we have carried out our studies in the hands of researchers specialized in antioxidant properties and their health benefits.

TetraSOD® Studies Sumary

Improvement of Semen Quality in Idiopathic Infertile Men by Dietary Supplementation with TetraSOD®: A Pilot Clinical Trial

Juan Manuel Corral, Meritxell Jodar, Roger Matheu, Eva González, Enrique Castaño, Carlos Unamunzaga, Lalia Mantecón and Carlos Infante

A randomized double-blind pilot trial was carried out to assess the potential beneficial effects of TetraSOD<sup>®</sup> on the semen quality of idiopathic infertile men. Forty individuals were recruited and divided into two experimental groups, receiving either 25 mg/day or 250 mg/day of TetraSOD<sup>®</sup> for 90 days. Semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm number, progressive motility, and normal forms were determined both at the commencement (t=0) and the end (t=3 months) of the trial. Statistically significant increases in all parameters but normal forms were induced by the highest dose of TetraSOD<sup>®</sup>, revealing the potential use of this ingredient in the clinical treatment of idiopathic infertility in men.

At t=0, no statistically significant differences were observed for any parameter between individuals targeted to either 25 mg/day or 250 mg/day group, indicating initial homogeneity of the two experimental groups. However, after the supplementation period with TetraSOD®, individuals consuming 250 mg/day exhibited significantly higher values than those receiving 25 mg/day in semen volume (3.09 ml vs 2.45 ml), sperm concentration (17.16 vs 11.63 x 106 sperm/ml), total sperm number (52.75 vs 28.17 x 106 sperm), and progressive motility (32.85 vs 26.10%). Moreover, the 90 days supplementation period with 250 mg/day provoked significant increases in relation to initial values at t=0 in semen volume (34.93%), sperm concentration (86.16%), total sperm number (137.6%), and progressive motility (25.86%). Additionally, supplementation with 250 mg/day allowed sperm concentration, total sperm number, and progressive motility to be over the respective LRL established by the WHO [21]. The group receiving 25 mg/day also exhibited significant increases (although lower compared with 250 mg/day) at t=3 months when compared to t=0 in semen volume (21.29%) and total sperm number (77.74%), but not in sperm concentration and progressive motility. Finally, no significant effect of TetraSOD® supplementation was observed in normal forms.

A 90-day dietary supplementation period with 250 mg/day of TetraSOD® increased semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm number, and progressive motility in idiopathic infertile men. These results suggest that TetraSOD® may enhance male fertility.

TetraSOD® activates the antioxidant response pathway in human cells

Ramírez, P., Mantecón, L., Unamunzaga, C., Infante, C.

TetraSOD® activates the antioxidant response pathway in human cells: An in vitro approach

In this work, we examined the antioxidant bioactivity of TetraSOD® in muscle cells (Normal Human Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts, HSMMs) using an in vitro approach. We detected an induction of primary antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, GPx, and CAT) which was further related to gene expression up-regulation of a selected set of genes involved in response against oxidative stress, including NRF2 and HMOX1.

It has been demonstrated that TetraSOD® exerts its antioxidant capacity via the master antioxidant switch NRF2/HMOX-1 pathway, selected genes being additionally regulated at transcriptional level.
TetraSOD® induces the cells endogenous production of SOD, CAT and GPX.
TetraSOD® activates the internal antioxidant system of the organism (indirect antioxidant) in contrast to other antioxidants that exert its antioxidant activity by directly scavenging free radicals (that is, there has been only demonstrated that they have antioxidant capacity in an in vitro test like DPPH or ORAC protocols).

Effects of Tetraselmis chuii Microalgae Supplementation on Anthropometric, Hormonal and Hematological Parameters in Healthy Young Men: A Double-Blind Study

Ángel García, Víctor Toro-Román, Jesús Siquier-Coll, Ignacio Bartolomé , Diego Muñoz
and Marcos Maynar-Mariño

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Tetraselmis chuii (TC) microalgae
supplementation for sixty days on hematological, anthropometric and hormonal parameters in
healthy young men. Forty-six men divided into a placebo group, a group supplemented with 25 mg/day of TC and another group supplemented with 200 mg/day of TC participated in this doubleblind study. PG ingested 200 mg/day of lactose powder.

It has been verified that the walls of the genus Tetraselmis sp. contain acidic and sulfated polysaccharides. Several studies have shown that sulfation of the polysaccharides can enhance detection by TLR4 receptors of macrophages. Upon recognition of the polysaccharides, TLR4 would increase the production of bone marrow-stimulating cytokines and chemokines. This would increase the proliferation of the various immune cells, as well as their extravasation into the bloodstream.

The results obtained in the present work indicate that daily supplementation with 25 mg of TC (TetraSOD®) for sixty days could optimize hematological, hormonal, biochemical and anthropometric parameters in healthy male students. 

No additional improvements were observed with the intake of 200 mg of TC. The data obtained provide a physiological approach that could determine the potential use of this microalgae in both the sports and health fields although most of the endocrine-metabolic mechanisms underlying the effects of TC remain unknown at present. Future research is needed to clarify the pathways of action of TC in the human body.

Clinical trial: Effects of TetraSOD® as food supplement in athletes

Rodrigo Bellido, F.J.

Effects of Tetraselmis chuii intake on oxidative stress in athletes. Extremadura University, Thesis, 2017.
Effects of TetraSOD® consumption in a total of 32 male football players with a minimum of 4-year previous experience in football training and subjected to regular training and competition during the span of the study

Supplementation with TetraSOD® provoked the main following effects (Rodrigo Bellido, 2017):

– Decrease in fat body mass (-8,8%)

– Improvement in performance during the effort stress test
HEART RATE ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD: Significant decrease in heart rate during activity (-3,6%)
HEART RATERECOVERY PHASE: Significant decrease in heart rate 3-minutes post activity (-4,2%)
HAEMOGLOBIN O2 CARRYING CAPACITY: Significant increase in haemoglobin levels (+4,9)

– Effect against oxidative stress
VITAMIN E LEVELS OXIDATIVE STRESS: Significant increase in vitamin E levels (+13,4%)

The consumption of TetraSOD® for 1 month obtained similar or higher results in Haemoglobin without and O2 consumption when compared to a high-altitude or high intensity training for at least three months.

TetraSOD®, a Unique Marine Microalgae Ingredient, Promotes an Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Status in a Metabolic Syndrome-Induced Model in Rats

Katherine Gil-Cardoso, Josep M. Del Bas, Antoni Caimari, Carmen Lama, Sonia Torres, Lalia Mantecón and Carlos Infante

In the present study, the potential bioactive effects of three dietary dosages of TetraSOD® in enhancing antioxidant and antiinflammatory mechanisms to combat the metabolic disturbances that compose MetS were assessed in rats given a cafeteria (CAF) diet. 

Chronic supplementation with 0.17, 1.7, and 17 mg kg􀀀1 day􀀀1 of TetraSOD® for 8 weeks ameliorated the abnormalities associated with MetS, including oxidative stress and inflammation, promoting endogenous antioxidant defence mechanisms in the liver (GPx and GSH), modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in plasma (NOx, oxLDL and IL-10), and regulating genes involved in antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory pathways in the liver, mesenteric white adipose tissue (MWAT), thymus, and spleen. Overall, TetraSOD® appears to be a potential therapeutic option for the management of MetS.

In the present study, our findings show subtle effects of TetraSOD® in metabolic parameters, tending to decrease plasma glucose after 17 mg kg􀀀1 bw of TetraSOD® administration and circulating levels of LDL/VLDL-C in the CAF + 0.17 group, compared to the group that received CAF diet and the vehicle. After 8 weeks of nutritional intervention with the CAF diet, clear metabolic alterations that characterize MetS were observed in our rats, including increased body weight and fat mass, hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and chronic low-grade systemic inflammation.

Following a corrective therapeutic strategy with these doses of TetraSOD® would not be enough to improve advanced obesity and the metabolic alterations associated with MetS that was achieved after 8 weeks of CAF diet. However, testing these doses in early stages of obesity or following preventive strategies could be considered for future studies.

In summary, chronic supplementation with TetraSOD® ameliorates oxidative stress and inflammation disturbances associated with MetS. Its beneficial effects against this metabolic disorder include (i) the promotion of endogenous antioxidant defence mechanisms in the liver, (ii) the modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in plasma, and (iii) the positive modulation of genes involved in antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immune pathways in the liver, MWAT, thymus and spleen. Altogether, TetraSOD® is postulated to be a promising therapeutic strategy for MetS management.

Phytoplankton Supplementation Lowers Muscle Damage and Sustains Performance across Repeated Exercise Bouts in Humans and Improves Antioxidant Capacity in a Mechanistic Animal

Matthew Sharp, Kazim Sahin, Matthew Stefan, Cemal Orhan, Raad Gheith,
Dallen Reber, Nurhan Sahin, Mehmet Tuzcu, Ryan Lowery, Shane Durkee 
and Jacob Wilson

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of antioxidant-rich marine phytoplankton supplementation (Oceanix, OCX) on performance and muscle damage following a cross-training event in endurance-trained subjects. Additionally, an animal model was carried out to assess the effects of varying dosages of OCX, with exercise, on intramuscular antioxidant capacity. Methods: In the human trial, endurance-trained subjects were randomly divided into placebo (PLA) and OCX (25 mg) conditions for 14 days. The subjects were pre-tested on a one-mile uphill run, maximal isometric strength, countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) power, and for muscle damage (creatine kinase (CK)).

When observing CMJ power, it was found that performance dropped equally in both groups. Intriguingly, however, SJ power declined more in the PLA compared to the OCX group (15% at 24 h Post). These differences were paralleled by greater increases in muscle damage in the PLA (+14% at 24 h Post) compared to the OCX. The ability of OCX to improve power in the SJ but not the CMJ may be due to the differences in mechanics between the two exercises. Specifically, athletes may be able to better use passive elastic components of connective tissue and tendons to overcome muscle damage in a CMJ relative to a SJ, which removes much of the ability to store and release elastic energy.

Intriguingly, the ability to use elastic energy increases as the stretch-shorten cycle time decreases. Correspondingly, the high intensity run in our study would demonstrate the shortest stretch shortening cycle in all the measures examined. Thus, the lack of differences in endurance between conditions despite greater muscle damage in the PLA may be explained by similar reasons to the CMJ. In support, we found that decrements in our isometric measure of strength from Pre to 48 h Post were greater in the PLA group (12%) than OCX.

We can conclude that the training program was e ective at inducing high levels of neuromuscular fatigue. However, marine phytoplankton supplementation (Oceanix, OCX) was able to improve recovery, sustain power, and prevent declines in strength across repeated endurance and cross-training bouts. Since recovery can be defined as, “returning what was lost due to exercise”, we demonstrated that OCX supplementation can improve recovery from intense competitions. Moreover, we present for the first time mechanistic data, which support the OCX role in improving intramuscular antioxidant capacity when combined with exercise.

TetraSOD® activates the antioxidant response pathway in human cells: An in vitro approach

In this scientific Research, we examined the antioxidant bioactivity of TetraSOD® in muscle cells (Normal Human Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts, HSMMs) using an in vitro approach. We detected an induction of primary antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, GPx, and CAT) which was further related to gene expression up-regulation of a selected set of genes involved in response against oxidative stress, including NRF2 and HMOX1.

Conclusions:

It has been demonstrated that TetraSOD® exerts its antioxidant capacity via the master antioxidant switch NRF2/HMOX-1 pathway, selected genes being additionally regulated at transcriptional level.

TetraSOD® induces the cellular endogenous production of SOD, CAT and GPx. TetraSOD® activates the internal antioxidant system of the organism (indirect antioxidant) in contrast to other antioxidants that exert its antioxidant activity by directly scavenging free radicals (that is, there has been only demonstrated that they have antioxidant capacity in an in vitro test like DPPH or ORAC).

Authors: Pilar Ramírez, Sonia Torres, Carmen Lama, Lalia Mantecón, Carlos Unamunzaga and Carlos Infante*

Scientific Publication: pdf

Clinical trial: Effects of TetraSOD® as food supplement in athletes

This scientific study on TetraSOD® is framed within the doctoral thesis of Rodrigo Bellido F. J., current professor at the University of Extremadura (department: medical-surgical therapeutics).

In that thesis, Effects of Tetraselmis chuii intake on oxidative stress in athletes, the effects of TetraSOD® consumption were studied in a total of 32 male football players with a minimum of 4-year previous experience in football training and subjected to regular training and competition during the span of the study

Results and conclusions:

The consumption of TetraSOD® for 1 month obtained similar or higher results in Haemoglobin content and O2 consumption when compared to a high-altitude or high intensity training for at least three months.

Supplementation with TetraSOD® provoked the main following effects:

  • Decrease in fat body mass (-8,8%)
  • Improvement in performance during the effort stress test
    • HEART RATE ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD: Significant decrease in heart rate during activity (-3,6%)
    • HEART RATE RECOVERY PHASE: Significant decrease in heart rate 3-min post activity (-4,2%)
    • HAEMOGLOBIN O2 CARRYING CAPACITY: Significant increase in haemoglobin levels (+4,9)
  • Effect against oxidative stress
    • VITAMIN E LEVELS: Significant increase in vitamin E levels (+13,4%)

Author: Rodrigo Bellido, Francisco Javier

Thesis directors: Maynar Mariño, Marcos Antonio

Scientific Publication: pdf

Scientific articles of interest about SOD

In the bibliography you can find additional information about other scientific studies on the health benefits of SOD and diets rich in SOD, as well as their applications to mitigate the effects of many health challenges:

  1. Superoxide dismutase, an updated review on its health benefits and industrial applications: https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1913400
  2. Antioxidant Foods and Cardiometabolic Health: https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11040746
  3. Effects of SOD Supplementation on Ergospirometric, Haematological and Biochemical Parameters: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186885
  4. Antioxidant-Rich (SOD) Marine Phytoplankton Supplementation Lowers Muscle Damage: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071990
  5. Therapeutic Treatment of Superoxide Dismutase Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Model Mice: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23063403
  6. Effect of Physical Exercise Under Different Intensity and Antioxidative Supplementation for Superoxide Dismutase: https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.707176
  7. Health benefits of microalgae and their microbiomes: https://doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.14082